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Mahatma Gandhi’s Letters to Adolf Hitler

If one were to contrast two personalities wholly contradictory, it would be Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler.

Mahatma Gandhi was instrumental in his struggle against British colonialism and India’s quest for independence. Throughout the struggle against foreign rule, Gandhi used non-violence (ahimsa) as a potent tool to fight the violent British state. Gandhian values of non-violence have been used by others to fight in the face of state power to this day.

Gandhi and Hitler: Two contrasting worlds

In contrast, Adolf Hitler represented all that Gandhi feared about humanity’s greed and the propensity for hatred and violence. Hitler was an Austrian-born German dictator of Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945. Germany, under Hitler’s dictatorship, witnessed the Jewish Holocaust, which persecuted and killed over six million Jews and millions of others.

All over the world, Hitler has often been represented as the “supreme embodiment of evil” in the twentieth century, just as Mahatma is represented as “the greatest instantiation of good”.

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Gandhi with his charka |, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Hitler and Gandhi in today’s India

However, like Gandhi, Hitler’s popularity in India is noteworthy. As a young school-going student, I was a witness to Hitler’s popularity in India. By 14, few of my friends had already gotten hold of Mein Kampf, a book banned in Germany—but holds a great market in India even today.

Jaico, the Indian publisher of Hitler’s autobiography, reportedly sold over 100,000 copies within ten years. All over India, the scenes of Mein Kampf on display are unsurprising. Moreover, the book has been translated into multiple languages, such as Gujarati, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Kannada, etc.

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Hitler seen addressing the crowd | Brazilian National Archives, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Now, about the letters. Gandhi wrote two brief letters to Hitler in English. He sent the first letter on 23rd July 1939 from his Sevagram Ashram near Wardha in the Indian State of Maharashtra. Contextually, the letter was sent a few weeks before Germany invaded Poland, which began World War II. In the letter, Gandhi urged Hitler to renounce war and use his mass popularity to sway over the masses to usher in an era of non-violence.

Gandhi’s Letter to Hitler on 23rd July 1939


Friends have been urging me to write to you for the sake of humanity. But I have resisted their request, because of the feeling that any letter from me would be an impertinence. Something tells me that I must not calculate and that I must make my appeal for whatever it may be worth.

It is quite clear that you are today the one person in the world who can prevent a war which may reduce humanity to a savage state. Must you pay that price for an object, however worthy it may appear to you to be? Will you listen to the appeal of one who has deliberately shunned the method of war not without considerable success? Anyway, I anticipate your forgiveness if I have erred in writing to you.

I remain,
Your sincere friend,
M. K. Gandhi

In the second letter, written on 24th December 1940, with the Second World War already in full swing, Gandhi appealed to Hitler to consider peaceful possibilities.

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Adolf Hitler with Italian Fascist Benito Mussolini in 1934 | Istituto Nazionale Luce , Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Gandhi’s Letter to Hitler on 24th December 1940


That I address you as a friend is no formality. I own no foes. My business in life has been for the past 33 years to enlist the friendship of the whole of humanity by befriending mankind, irrespective of race, colour or creed.

I hope you will have the time and desire to know how a good portion of humanity who have view living under the influence of that doctrine of universal friendship view your action. We have no doubt about your bravery or devotion to your fatherland, nor do we believe that you are the monster described by your opponents. But your own writings and pronouncements and those of your friends and admirers leave no room for doubt that many of your acts are monstrous and unbecoming of human dignity, especially in the estimation of men like me who believe in universal friendliness. Such are your humiliation of Czechoslovakia, the rape of Poland and the swallowing of Denmark. I am aware that your view of life regards such spoliations as virtuous acts. But we have been taught from childhood to regard them as acts degrading humanity. Hence we cannot possibly wish success to your arms.

But ours is a unique position. We resist British Imperialism no less than Nazism. If there is a difference, it is in degree. One-fifth of the human race has been brought under the British heel by means that will not bear scrutiny. Our resistance to it does not mean harm to the British people. We seek to convert them, not to defeat them on the battle-field. Ours is an unarmed revolt against the British rule. But whether we convert them or not, we are determined to make their rule impossible by non-violent non-co-operation. It is a method in its nature indefensible. It is based on the knowledge that no spoliator can compass his end without a certain degree of co-operation, willing or compulsory, of the victim. Our rulers may have our land and bodies but not our souls. They can have the former only by complete destruction of every Indian-man, woman and child. That all may not rise to that degree of heroism and that a fair amount of frightfulness can bend the back of revolt is true but the argument would be beside the point. For, if a fair number of men and women be found in India who would be prepared without any ill will against the spoliators to lay down their lives rather than bend the knee to them, they would have shown the way to freedom from the tyranny of violence. I ask you to believe me when I say that you will find an unexpected number of such men and women in India. They have been having that training for the past 20 years.

We have been trying for the past half a century to throw off the British rule. The movement of independence has been never so strong as now. The most powerful political organization, I mean the Indian National Congress, is trying to achieve this end. We have attained a very fair measure of success through non-violent effort. We were groping for the right means to combat the most organized violence in the world which the British power represents. You have challenged it. It remains to be seen which is the better organized, the German or the British. We know what the British heel means for us and the non-European races of the world. But we would never wish to end the British rule with German aid. We have found in non-violence a force which, if organized, can without doubt match itself against a combination of all the most violent forces in the world. In non-violent technique, as I have said, there is no such thing as defeat. It is all ‘do or die’ without killing or hurting. It can be used practically without money and obviously without the aid of science of destruction which you have brought to such perfection. It is a marvel to me that you do not see that it is nobody’s monopoly. If not the British, some other power will certainly improve upon your method and beat you with your own weapon. You are leaving no legacy to your people of which they would feel proud. They cannot take pride in a recital of cruel deed, however skilfully planned. I, therefore, appeal to you in the name of humanity to stop the war. You will lose nothing by referring all the matters of dispute between you and Great Britain to an international tribunal of your joint choice. If you attain success in the war, it will not prove that you were in the right. It will only prove that your power of destruction was greater. Whereas an award by an impartial tribunal will show as far as it is humanly possible which party was in the right.

You know that not long ago I made an appeal to every Briton to accept my method of non-violent resistance. I did it because the British know me as a friend though a rebel. I am a stranger to you and your people. I have not the courage to make you the appeal I made to every Briton. Not that it would not apply to you with the same force as to the British. But my present proposal is much simple because much more practical and familiar.

During this season when the hearts of the peoples of Europe yearn for peace, we have suspended even our own peaceful struggle. Is it too much to ask you to make an effort for peace during a time which may mean nothing to you personally but which must mean much to the millions of Europeans whose dumb cry for peace I hear, for my ears are attended to hearing the dumb millions? I had intended to address a joint appeal to you and Signor Mussolini, whom I had the privilege of meeting when I was in Rome during my visit to England as a delegate to the Round Table Conference. I hope that he will take this as addressed to him also with the necessary changes.

I am,
Your sincere friend,

Of course, Hitler did not write back in either instance. Moreover, there are chances that Hitler never received Gandhi’s letters, with censors full-blown in British India. In any case, we are all left with two political letters.

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Gandhi during the Salt Satyagraha of 1930 | Yann, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Gandhi writes: “… you are today the one person in the world who can prevent a war”—and so, you should.  Gandhi’s emphasis on non-violence is paramount in both letters. Gandhi advocated that Hitler use his popularity to preach peace. In all, one could also conclude that this was Gandhi’s effort to stop Hitler from starting a war, which had consequences worldwide.  

Cover Image: Heinrich Vogeler, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

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